What Is Truth?

Research articles

A collection of summaries of the current scholarly knowledge about individual mental design and personalised solutions for developing mental resilience. The topics revolve around mental performance, cultural biases and different self-improvement methods.


It is believed that there’s safety in numbers – the more people present, the greater the chance that someone intervenes


Let’s take two potential scenarios. One (Scenario A) is that you’re walking down a dark alleyway at night. There are just two other people there. One attacks and wrestles your wallet from you. The implication is that because there is only one person who could intervene to help you, you are less safe. In Scenario B you are in the middle of a large park in a city during the daytime with dozens of...

The myth that it’s better to express anger than to hold it in


There is an extensive debate on whether expressing anger or not is the better way to go about releasing tension. Based on earlier research, many people believe that failing to express anger in a healthy manner is a negative practices that strikes back. Moreover, it is often concluded that people who do not express their anger healthily will then express them in a much more destructive, pent-up...

Men are viewed as professionals, while women as hobby athletes


There is a strong bias around athletic performance by gender as men are commonly viewed as professionals, while female participants are primarily considered as engaging in sports for fun. In many countries, professionals are mostly referred to using their surnames. However, there is evidence that gender determines how people perceive professionals according to Atir and Ferguson (2018). In their...

The belief that mental skills cannot be taught


Mental skills are one of the most significant factors ensuring high performance and success for elite athletes. One of the biggest myths in sports is that mental skills are born with and cannot be taught. However, overwhelming empirical evidence reports that mental skills can be learned and improved through practice, just like physical skills can be honed through exercise. Although there are...

Women in certain sports are often seen as being non-feminine


There are various qualities associated with gender. These qualities are socially constructed and dependent on cultural standards, leading to gender-based stereotypes of what is masculine and feminine (Mennesson, 2000).  Some sports are seen as more masculine than others, for example, football (soccer), rugby, cricket, basketball and combative arts are all considered “masculine”...

Overweight thought to cannot win – The smothering weight-based stigma in sports


Even though engaging in sports considered to be the stepping stone for a better life, with excess weight on, the process is often blocked by the surrounding social climate. Based on their weight, the majority of overweight are regarded as un-athletic and hence excluded from sports in group situations and combative arts. Very commonly, the judgment goes beyond questioning their physical...

Literature review on the human belief system – The science of belief


“The confidence we have in our beliefs is preposterous, and it is also essential”. Daniel Kahneman This quote by Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman offers a great dichotomy of the phenomenon we refer to as believing. We are driven by the multitude of beliefs that influence our everyday thoughts and behaviours. This is apparent within all the domains of human life that are significantly influenced...

Literature review on stress management – components and methods


the need of Stress Management The ability to manage incoming stress has always been a central element of growth and success. As seen in society, the most effective and fast-moving individuals all share the unique ability to handle acute stress levels without it influencing their normal functioning. Conversely, there are many who find themselves at the whims of stress and become engulfed in the...

Literature review on emotional resilience (known as emotional control) and the methods to consolidate it


Emotions – What Are they and How Can We Control Them? On the surface, emotions are a form of reaction all humans display in response to various experiences. They are officially defined as a psychological state involving three distinct components of a subjective experience, a physiological reaction to the experience and a subsequent behavioural or expressive response (Hockenbury & Hockenbury...

Literature review on mental toughness (resilience) and the way to cultivate it


What is mental toughness? Mental toughness, or resilience, can be understood as responding to aversive stimuli in a constructive and positive way where an individual can retain their psychological integrity despite any apparent hardship or challenge. According to the American Psychological Association, it is defined as the process by which an individual can adapt to difficult life experiences...

What Is Truth?